Approaches to Understanding the Terrorism Phenomenon and a Comparative Analysis of Its Definition in Key Jurisdictions of the World

The authors analyze terrorism from the point of view of definitions in the national jurisdictions of the USA, China, EU, and Russia. They also compare approaches to determine key features of this phenomenon in the papers of the most cited researchers of terrorism. National counterterrorism policies are governed by national laws, which depend on the doctrinal basics of the definition of terrorism. The authors use such methods as content analysis and comparative analysis of legislations to identify important aspects of these doctrinal foundations for USA, China, EU, and Russia.

“Bottom-Up” Counterterrorism: Prerequisites for Terrorism and the Role of Non-State Actors in Their Elimination

The article deals with the process of formation of morality that justifies terrorism. The author analyzes the conditions which lead to the employment of terrorism as a method of reaction by an agent in an environment. Finally, the author considers the “bottom-up strategy of inclusive counterterrorism”, which implies the marginalization of terrorism among the local population through interaction with the most oppressed groups. The role of non-state actors, in particular NGOs, in the implementation of the “bottom-up strategy of countering terrorism” is assessed.

Features of the Social Base of Terrorism in Russia

Article is devoted to studying in domestic sociology of characteristics of a social base of terrorism in Russia. The attention is paid to interpretation of concept of a social base of terrorism; various elements of this category are investigated. In article, influence of incomplete modernization and system crises on emergence of terrorist activity in
society is studied. The mercenary motive as a factor of terrorist activity is considered. Also the attention is paid to the scientific analysis of involvement in terrorist activity of members of various social groups.