Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Sociology. Politology

ISSN 1818-9601 (Print)
ISSN 2541-8998 (Online)

Full text PDF(Ru):
(downloads: 0)
Article type: 

Институт прямых президентских выборов в парламентских республиках

Zaznaev Oleg I., Kazan (Privolzhsky) Federal University

The article analyzes the impact of the institution of direct presidential elections on the form of government in the conditions of a parliamentary republic. The author identifies five models of the outcome of the introduction of popular elections, of which the parliamentary system remains in three models (Iceland, Ireland and the Czech Republic), and in the other two the transition to semi-presidential (France) and presidential systems (Turkey) occurs. Author’s assessment of the role of popular presidential elections in the parliamentary system is given


1 См.: Sartori G. Comparative Constitutional Engineering : An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes. 2nd ed. L. : Macmillan Press, 1997. P. 138. 

2 См.: Тимошенко И.Г. Исландия. Вводная статья // Конституции государств Европы : в 3 т. / под общ. ред. Л. А. Окунькова. М. : НОРМА, 2001. Т. 2. С. 10. 

3 Там же. С. 11. 

4 См.: Федеральный конституционный закон Австрийской Республики от 10 ноября 1920 года // Конституции государств Европы. Т. 1. 

5 Duverger M. A New Political System Model : SemiPresidential Government // European Journal of Political Research. 1980. Vol. 8. P. 167. 

6 Kysela J., Kühn Z. Presidential Elements in Government : The Czech Republic // European Constitutional Law Review. 2007. Vol. 3. P. 99. 

7 Ibid. P. 112. 

8 Ibid. 

9 Wintr J., Antoš M., Kysela J. Direct election of the president and its constitutional and political consequences // Acta Politologica. 2016. Vol. 8, №. 2. P. 145. 

10 Ibid. P. 150. 

11 См.: Turkey’s Constitutional Reform : A review of Constitutional History, Current Parliamentary System and Proposed Presidential System. № 4, February 2017. Istanbul : TRT World Research Centre, 2017. 

12 См.: Sezgin Y. How a constitutional amendment could end Turkey’s republic. URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/01/24/how-a-cons... (дата обращения: 27.12.2017). 

13 Gerring J., Thacker S. C., Moreno C. Are Parliamentary Systems Better? // Comparative Political Studies. 2009. Vol. 42, № 3. P. 337. 

14 См.: Semi-Presidentialism in Europe / ed. by R. Elgie. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1999. P. 8–9, 14. 

15 См.: Sartori G. Op. cit. P. 85. 

16 См.: Зазнаев О. И. Полупрезидентская система : теоретические и прикладные аспекты. Казань : Казан. гос. ун-т им. В. И. Ульянова-Ленина, 2006. С. 121.